Global Interconnections: China and East Asia

MDV 392M (Unique# 62095); also MDV 685L (Unique# 62075)
April 20-May 6, Spring 2004
Tuesdays and Thursdays, 4:00 p.m.-7:00 p.m.
UTC 4.114

Professor: Roger Hart
Office: Garrison Hall, Room 405
Office hours: TBA
office phone: (512) 475-7258


The purpose of this segment of this seminar is to introduce the following: (1) key primary sources for China and East Asia focusing on global interconnections and exchanges; (2) key theoretical issues related to the conceptualization of global interconnections; and (3) suggested further readings in secondary sources. Upon completion, students will be able to design and teach a course on world history with China and East Asia as a component, and to incorporate Chinese and East Asian materials (in translation) in their research.


In preparation before each session, it is recommended that you write brief reading notes. Notes on each of the readings should usually be one short paragraph summarizing the central argument, together with a sentence or two outlining a very brief critical analysis. These will serve as the basis for class discussions. For more specific instructions, see "Reading Notes: Suggested Approaches."

The final grade for this segment will be based on a 5 pp. analytic paper (which should be based on the reading notes).


For each session (note that there are two sessions each week) the readings will consist of the following:

(1) Primary sources (required): about 30-40 pp., mostly translations of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean sources, with translators' introductions (which should be read quickly, and with caution).

(2) Theoretical readings (required): about 30-40 pp., often excerpts.

(3) Secondary sources (optional): suggested readings from secondary sources are all optional.

Reading notes should cover selected primary and theoretical readings.

Course Reader

All the required readings -- primary and theoretical -- will be included in the Course Reader.

PCL Reserves

Primary and theoretical readings will be put on reserve at PCL.

Electronic Reserves (ERes)

Some supplementary materials may be made available through Electronic Reserves.


1. Cultural Identities: Confucianism and Being "Chinese"

Primary sources (required): State Ideologies -- Confucianism, Daoism, Legalism, and Neo-Confucianism

Analects (Lun yu 論語, c. 500? to 250? BCE), attributed to Confucius (Kongzi 孔子, 551-479 BCE), selections, trans. in Sources of Chinese Tradition, ed. Wm. Theodore de Bary, 2nd ed., vol. 1, From Earliest Times to 1600 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999), pp. 41-50.

Mencius (Mengzi 孟子, c. 300? to 250? BCE), attributed to Mencius (385?-312? BCE), selections, trans. in Sources of Chinese Tradition, vol. 1, pp. 114-20, 124-26.

The Classic of the Way and Virtue (Dao de jing 道德經, 3rd? century BCE), traditionally attributed to Laozi 老子 (n.d.), selections, trans. in Sources of Chinese Tradition, vol. 1, pp. 77-81.

Book of Lord Shang (Shang jun shu 商君書, c. 350? to 200? BCE), attributed to Shang Yang 商 鞅 (385-338 BCE), selections, trans. in Sources of Chinese Tradition, vol. 1, pp. 193-98.

Zhu Xi 朱熹 (1130-1200), Great Learning, by Chapter and Phrase (Da xue zhang ju 大學章句), and Mean, by Chapter and Phrase (Zhong yong zhang ju 中庸章句), selections, trans. in Sources of Chinese Tradition, vol. 1, pp. 720-37.

Theoretical Readings (required): Nations, Civilizations, Cultures

Lucien Febvre, excerpt from "Civilization: Evolution of a Word and a Group of Ideas," in Classical Readings in Culture and Civilization, pp. 160, 173-83; originally published in 1930.

Raymond Williams, "Culture," in Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), pp. 79-82.

Benedict R. Anderson, "Introduction," chap. 1 of Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, rev. and extended ed. (New York: Verso, 1991), pp. 1-7; first ed. published 1983.

Secondary Sources (optional)

Benjamin A. Elman, A Cultural History of Civil Examinations in Late Imperial China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000).

Peter Bol, “This Culture of Ours”: Intellectual Transitions in Tang and Song China (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992).

James T. C. Liu, "How Did a Neo-Confucian School Become the State Orthodoxy," Philosophy East & West 23, no. 4 (1973): 483-505.

Tu Wei-ming, "Cultural China: The Periphery as the Center," in The Living Tree: The Changing Meaning of Being Chinese Today, ed. Tu Wei-ming (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994); originally published in Daedalus, Vol. 120, no. 2 (Spring, 1991).

2. Cultural Transmissions: Confucianism and Buddhism throughout East Asia

Primary sources (required): Criticism and defense of Buddhism and Confucianism

Mouzi 牟子 (n.d.), Disposing of Error (Li huo lun 理惑論), selections, trans. in Sources of Chinese Tradition, pp. 415-26.

Prince Shôtoku 聖德太子 (574?-622?), Seventeen-article constitution, trans. in Sources of Japanese Tradition, pp. 46-55.

Lives of Eminent Korean Monks (Haedong kosung chon 海東高僧傳), comp. Kakhun 覺訓 (13th c.), selections, trans. in Sources of Korean Tradition, pp. 41-48.

Zhu Xi, "Proclamation of Instructions," trans. in Sources of Chinese Tradition, pp. 748-51.

Theoretical readings (required): World History

Immanuel Kant, "Idea for a Universal History from a Cosmopolitan Point of View," reprinted in Classical Readings in Culture and Civilization, ed. John F. Rundell and Stephen Mennell (New York: Routledge, 1998), pp. 39-47; first published in 1784.

G. W. F. Hegel, excerpts from "Introduction," in The Philosophy of History, trans. J. Sibree, rev. ed. (New York: P. F. Collier), pp. 1-20; from lectures delivered in winter 1830-31, edited by Prof. Gans, re-edited by Charles Hegel, based on lectures in winter 1822-23.

Secondary sources (optional)

Mircea Eliade, The Forge and the Crucible, 2d ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978).

3. Material Culture and Exchange

Primary sources: Economics, Science and Technology

Economic reform: Wang Anshi (1021-1086), "Memorial to Emperor Renzong," "Memorial on the Crop Loans Measure," and "In Defense of Five Major Policies"; Su Shi (1037-1101), "Memorial to Emperor Shenzong"; Sima Guang (1019-1086), "A Petition to Do Away with the Most Harmful of the New Laws"; Zhu Xi, "Wang Anshi in Retrospect." In Sources of Chinese Tradition, pp. 609-628.

Brief excerpts from Proper Sounds to Instruct the People (Hunmin chôngûm 訓民正音), attributed to King Sejong 世宗 (1397-1450); Veritable Records of the Sejong Reign [1418-1450] (Sejong sillok 世宗實錄); Administrative Code of the Chosôn (Chosôn kyôngguk chôn 朝鮮經國存, 1392); Revised and Augmented Gazeteer of Korea (Sinjûng Tongguk yôji sûngnam 新增東國輿地勝覧, 1530). Trans. in Sources of Korean Tradition, pp. 293-306.

Song Yingxing 宋應星 (1587-1661), excerpts from Exploiting the Works of Nature (Tian gong kai wu 天工開物, 1637), trans. in Chinese Technology in the Seventeenth Century: T'ien-Kung K'ai-Wu, ed. E. tu Zen Sun, and Shiou-chuan Sun (University Park: Pennsylvania State University, 1966), pp. xi-xii, 261-78.

Theoretical Readings: Science Studies

John Dupré, "Metaphysical Disorder and Scientific Disunity," in The Disunity of Science: Boundaries, Contexts, and Power, ed. Peter Galison and David J. Stump, Writing Science (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996), pp. 101-17.

Peter Galison, "Trading Zone: Coordinating Action and Belief," in The Science Studies Reader, ed. Mario Biagioli (New York: Routledge, 1999), pp. 137-160; excerpted from chap. 9 of Galison, Image and Logic: A Material Culture of Microphysics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997).

Secondary Readings

Francis Bacon, Novum Organum, in The Works, 3 vols., ed. and trans. Basil Montague (Philadelphia: Parry & MacMillan, 1854), selections.

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, "The Secret of Primitive Accumulation," pt. 8 chap. 26 of Capital: A Critique of Political Economy (New York: International Publishers, 1967); originally published in 1867.

Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change: Communications and Cultural Transformations in Early Modern Europe, 2 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979).

Joseph Needham, "The Epic of Gunpowder and Firearms, Developing from Alchemy," in Science in Traditional China: A Comparative Perspective (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981).

Roger Hart, “On the Problem of Chinese Science,” in The Science Studies Reader, edited by Mario Biagioli (New York: Routledge, 1999), 189–201.

4. Translation of Cultures: The "First Encounter" of China and the "West"

Primary sources: Writings of Christian missionaries and their collaborators

Matteo Ricci, True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven, introduction and chap. 1, trans. Douglas Lancashire and Peter Hu Kuo-chen (Taipei: Ricci Institute, 1985), pp. 57-97 (odd pages only).

Li Zhizao 李之藻 (1569-1630), Preface to Ricci's True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven; Xu Guangqi, "Memorial in Defense of Western Learning"; Yang Guangxian 楊光先 (1597-1669), "I Cannot Do Otherwise"; and Zhang Xingyao 張星曜 (1633-c. 1725), "An Examination of the Similarities and Differences Between the Lord of Heaven Teaching and the Teaching of the Confucian Scholars." Trans. in Sources of Chinese Tradition, vol. 2, pp. 142-154.

Theoretical Readings (required): Language, Thought, and Culture

Emile Durkheim and Marcel Mauss, "Conclusions," in Primitive Classification, trans. Rodney Needham (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967), pp. 81-88; originally published as "De quelques formes primitives de classification" in 1903 in Année sociologique, 1901-2.

Benjamin Lee Whorf, excerpts from "The Relation of Habitual Thought and Behaviour to Language," in Language, Thought, and Reality, Technology Press Books in the Social Sciences (Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1959), pp. 135-40, 152-59; first published in Language, Culture, and Personality: Essays in Memory of Edward Sapir, ed. Leslie Spier (Menasha, Wisc.: Sapir Memorial Publication Fund, 1941).

Ludwig Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations, trans. G. Anscombe (Oxford: Blackwell, 1958 [1953]), §§ 1-43, 65-70 and 82-85, pp. 2-20, 31-33, and 38-40.

Secondary sources (optional)

Jacques Gernet, China and the Christian Impact: A Conflict of Cultures (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985).

Roger Hart, "Translating the Untranslatable: From Copula to Incommensurable Worlds." In Tokens of Exchange: The Problem of Translation in Global Circulations, edited by Lydia H. Liu (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2000), 45–73.

5. Conflicts of Cultures: Warfare

Primary sources

Oda Nobunaga 織田信長 (1534-1582), excerpt from Complete works of Oda Nobunaga (Oda Nobunaga monjo 織田信長文書), trans. in Sources of Japanese Tradition, vol. 1, pp. 444-50.

Selections from "Dutch and Chinese Views of a Battle" and "An Empress Appeals to the Pope," chaps. 13 and 14 of Voices from the Ming-Qing Cataclysm: China in Tigers’ Jaws, ed. and trans. Lynn A. Struve (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993), pp. 205-38.

Hwang Sa-yong 黃嗣永 (1775-1801), excerpt from Silk Manuscripts of Hwang Sa-yong (Hwang Sa-yong paekso 黃嗣永帛書); Yi Hang-no 李恒老 (1792-1868), excerpt from Collected Works of Mr. Hwaso (Hwaso Sonsaeng munjip 華西先生文集). Trans. in Sources of Korean Tradition, vol. 2, pp. 135-42.

Secondary sources (required)

Bert S. Hall, "Technology and the Military Revolution," chap. 7 of Weapons and Warfare in Renaissance Europe: Gunpowder, Technology, and Tactics (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997), pp. 201-235.

Theoretical sources (optional)

Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, "1227: Treatise on Nomadology -- The War Machine," in A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, trans. Brian Massumi (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987), pp. 351-424; originally published as Mille plateaux, vol. 2 of Capitalisme et schizophrénie (Paris: Les Éditions de Minuit, 1980).

6. Interconnected Cultures: Globalization -- What, When, and Where?

Primary sources (required)

Lin Zexu 林則徐 (1785-1850), letters to Queen Victoria (1839) and Wu Zixu (n.d.). Trans. in Sources of Chinese Tradition, vol. 2, pp. 198-206.

Selections from Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace Collectanea (Taiping Tianguo congshu 太平天國叢書), comp. Xiao Yishan 蕭一山 (1902-1978). Trans. in Sources of Chinese Tradition, vol. 2, pp. 213-30.

Satô Nobuhiro 佐藤信淵 (1769-1850), selections from Confidential Memoir on Social Control (Suitô hiroku 垂統秘錄), Creation and Cultivation (Yôzô kaikku ron), and Confidential Plan of World Unification 混同秘策, trans. in Sources of Japanese Tradition, vol. 2, pp. 56-59, 67-73.

Theoretical Readings (required): Globalization

Short excerpts from the following: Manuel Castells, The Information Age, vol. 1: The Rise of the Network Society (New Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1996); David Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Exchange (New Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1990); Anthony Giddens, The Consequences of Modernity (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990); and Ulrich Beck, What is Globalization? trans. Patrick Camiller (Polity Press, 1999). Reprinted as chaps. 5-8 of The Global Transformations Reader: An Introduction to the Globalization Debate, edited by David Held and Anthony McGrew (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2000), pp. 76-103.

Secondary Readings (optional)

Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein, The Modern World-System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century, Studies in Social Discontinuity (New York: Academic Press, 1974).

Andre Gunder Frank, Reorient: Global Economy in the Asian Age (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1998).

Kenneth Pomeranz, The Great Divergence: Europe, China, and the Making of the Modern World Economy (Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 2000).